Pengertian dan Fungsi Sentrosom


Wawasan Edukasi – Sentrosom merupakan suatu organel di dalam sel yang ditemukan pertama kali leh Edouard Van Beneden pada tahun 1883. Sentrosom adalah Organel sel yang berfungsi aktif pada pembelahan sel dan hanya terdapat pada sel hewan. Pada tahun 1888 Theodor Boveri mendeskripsikan mengenai apa itu sentrosom dan juga fungsinya.

Di dalam sel, sentrosom memiliki fungsi sebagai microtubule organizing center (MTOC) dari sel hewan. Sentrosom juga berperan aktif pada saat sel melakukan proses pembelahan. Perlu diingat bahwa sentrosom hanya terdapat di dalam sel hewan.

Berikut ini adalah beberapa fungsi sentrosom yaitu:

  1. Selama proses prophase pada siklus sel, sentrosom terhubung dengan membran nuclear. Ketika terjadi pembelahan mitosis, membran nuclear hancur kemudian sentrosom membentuk microtubulus yang berinteraksi dengan kromosom untuk membentuk mitotic spindle.
  2. Sentrosom disalin hanya satu kali per siklus sel jadi jika setiap anak sel mewarisi satu sentrosom, mengandung dua struktur yang disebut sentrioles. Sentrosom mereplikasi selama S phase dari siklus sel. Selama propashe dalam proses divisi sel yang disebut mitosis, sentrosom bermigrasi untuk berlawanan dengan sel. Mitotic spindle kemudian membentuk antara dua sentrosom. Selama pembagian, setiap anak sel menerima satu sentrosom. Jumlah sentrosom yang menyimpang berhubungan dengan adanya kanker.
  3. Double sentrosom juga serupa dengan replikasi dari DNA. Tapi prosesnnya berbeda karena di dalam sentrosom tidak terjadi pembacaan dan pemasangan. Ibu sentriol hanya akan membantu akumulasi material yang dibutuhkan untuk pengumpulan anak sentriol.
  4. Sentriol tidak dibutuhkan untuk mitosis. Saat sentriol disinari oleh laser, mitosis berproses secara normal. pengembangan dari Drosophila cukup normal saat sentriol absen karena mutasi gen dibutuhkan untuk duplikasi mereka. Pada saat absen tersebut, microtubules dari splindle akan fokus dengan motor yang mengizinkan terbentuknya bipolar spindle. Banyak sel dapat melalui interphase secara lengkap tanpa hadirnya sentriol.
  5. Tidak seperti sentriol, sentrosom dibutuhkan untuk pertahanan hidup organism. Acentrosomal sel atau sel tanpa sentrosom kekuaran radial arrays dari asral microtubules. Mereka juga kurang dalam posisi spindle dan kemampuan untuk mengembangkan lokalisasi sentral di dalam sitokinesis. Fungsi dari sentrosom ini adalah meyakinkan ketaatan dari divisi sel karena ini akan meningkatkan kinerjanya. Beberapa tipe sel menahan di siklus sel selanjutnya saat sentrosom absen.

Baca juga:

  1. Fungsi Ribosom
  2. Fungsi Lisosom

Fungsi Sentriol

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